1. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
2. The researchers rubbed spores of the Penicillium mold into the fabric of their lab coats.
3. Asprin (acetylsalicylic acid)
4. Travelers were to bring back soil samples from the locations they visited. The soil fungus from which Cyclosporine was derived was collected in Norway.
5. Hoffman acetylated morphine, creating heroin.
6. Actually, there were two, Robert Wood Johnson’s brothers James and Edward Mead.
8. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
9. “It has not escaped our notice . . .” comes from Watson and Crick’s 1953 Nature article on the structure of DNA. What hadn’t escaped their notice was the fact that the double helix structure they proposed suggested possible copying mechanism for genetic material.
10. Perkins, then 18, was trying to create a synthetic form of quinine.
11. Microbiologist and Nobel Prize winner Selman Waksman discovered streptomycin.
12. Photographer Janet Parker, the world’s last victim of smallpox, died. She apparently was infected by virus that escaped from a laboratory containment.
13. The odd company out is Neutrogena, which is owned by Johnson & Johnson. The rest are part of Pfizer.
14. Sudafed (pseudoephedrine)
15. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation