While education is a cornerstone of any clinical practice, sales teams often fall short of informing doctors and other healthcare
professionals how to successfully integrate new therapies into patient care.
As early as the 1960s, Upjohn began to use other field-based medical personnel to fill in the gaps. Historically, these programs
have been characterized by small groups of technically oriented sales reps, and have leveraged relationships with thought
leaders, ultimately influencing prescribing. As a result, many physicians see these field-based medical personnel as an extension
of the sales force.
The pharma industry still employs medical experts to call on professionals. Today, however, the background and medical expertise
of these medical liaisons is very different from the original concept. A recent survey found that 66 percent of pharma companies
require medical liaisons to hold an MD, PhD, or Pharm.D degree. With that knowledge base, field-based medical support programs
can play a more powerful role in bridging the education gap between drug information and appropriate clinical use. We found
this to be particularly true in diabetes, where many practices fail to incorporate new, effective treatments into patient
In 1917, Elliott Joslin, the first US diabetes physician-specialist, noted that, "A well trained nurse was of more value than
the patient's doctors." Joslin recognized that for patients with diabetes to make the behavioral changes to manage their condition,
they needed information from healthcare professionals who were specially trained to teach them.
In the early 1980s, following NIH funding for diabetes research and training centers, and the adoption of national standards
for diabetes education, a professional subspecialty emerged. The goal of these diabetes educators was to inform patients about
the disease process, train them in self-care, and to support patients in lifestyle modifications and behavioral changes. Diabetes
educators may be nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, or other health professionals, and very often function within a larger,
multidisciplinary team. The educator assesses patient needs, communicates treatment recommendations to prescribers, and serves
as an advocate for patients. They may also adjust medication and carry out other disease management activities, depending
on licensure guidelines and other clinical practice protocols.
Patients that receive this disease education have lower costs of care, fewer emergency room visits, and an improved quality
of life. According to a 2002 study published in Diabetes Care, for every 23.6 hours of contact with a diabetes educator, A1C (hemoglobin A1C, a measure of glucose control over the preceding
2–3 months) decreased 1 percent, which corresponds to a decrease in average blood glucose of 35 mg/dl.
DCLs and the Translation Gap
The pharma industry should appreciate the influence of diabetes educators when it comes to the uptake of novel therapeutics.
They are a particularly important target to help translate research findings regarding novel therapies into safe and effective
clinical care practices.
To help in the translation and support the launch of an injectable adjunct therapy to insulin for patients with type 1 and
type 2 diabetes, Amylin created its Diabetes Clinical Liaison (DCL) program in 2001. The initial team was comprised of seven
registered nurses or dietitians, all of whom were Certified Diabetes Educators. (The team was later expanded to 15 field members.)
With an average of 15 years of diabetes-specific experience as well as additional expertise in clinical management, clinical
research, and education, these DCLs were able to discuss the science, clinical impact, and use of the drug with healthcare
Amylin deployed DCLs to complement the medical science liaison team, with whom they worked in tandem. While MSLs focused on
educating and cultivating KOL advocacy among physicians, DCLs focused on providing scientific and medical education to members
of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, with particular focus on diabetes educators and diabetes center staff. The primary
objectives of DCLs were to ensure that these healthcare professionals gained clinical understanding of the therapy and understood
how to integrate it into patients' regimens. They educated clinicians about when and how to use the drug, how to interpret
therapeutic results, and what information to give patients—which promoted a better understanding of the drug and skills patients
needed to safely employ this unique therapeutic. DCLs also supported KOL efforts among diabetes educators, and provided local,
broad-based education to the clinical care community.