Consumer advocates have launched a "Fix the FDA" campaign as drug safety incidents continue to prompt questions about how
FDA reviews new drugs and monitors those on the market. The reformers want to give the agency more funding and post-approval
regulatory clout, but FDA officials maintain that new internal initiatives can fix its problems.
At hearings in March before the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee, panel chairman Mike Enzi (R-WY)
and lead Democrat Edward Kennedy (D-MA) discussed developing bipartisan legislation to address a range of proposals. Kennedy
complained that it took five years for the public to learn that Vioxx may double the risk of heart attack or stroke, while
user fees allow FDA to review new drugs quickly. But Kennedy also agreed with Enzi that "overreacting could be as dangerous
as doing nothing," and that it is critical to "find the right approach."
Fight for Independence
Senate Finance Committee chairman Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) has been leading the campaign to establish a separate office to
oversee drug safety issues, similar to boards that review highway and airline accidents. Grassley and others originally demanded
a drug safety operation independent of the agency, but FDA officials have been fairly successful in explaining that it makes
sense to keep this operation at the agency, and preferably within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), where
it now is.
Cut the Ads
Pharma companies support FDA contentions that it's critical for the people who evaluate a drug application in the first place
to play a role in monitoring the product over its full lifecycle. At the Senate hearing, FDA acting deputy director Janet
Woodcock described drug regulation as a continuum between pre- and post-market monitoring that requires a careful balancing
of risks and benefits, a perspective that might decline in an operation that focuses solely on safety problems.
Even if Congress decides to leave FDA drug safety oversight structurally intact, reformers are pressing for a number of additional
changes that would give FDA more clout:
Strengthen FDA authority to require labeling changes on approved drugs While the agency usually reaches agreement quickly with sponsors on additional warnings and other labeling changes, the Vioxx
case shows that such negotiations can take months. Sandra Kweder, deputy director of CDER's Office of New Drugs, acknowledged
at the first Senate hearing that the ability to require changes in labeling would be "very helpful" to the agency.
Require sponsors to complete post-approval studies Kweder also supports policies allowing FDA to require a clinical trial to address specific safety issues that emerge after
a drug is on the market. FDA now can mandate additional studies only for those drugs approved under its accelerated approval
process. The agency can ask a sponsor to conduct certain Phase IV trials, but cannot do much if the marketer fails to keep
its commitments— not an uncommon circumstance.
Boost FDA authority to remove problematic drugs from the market Most drug withdrawals are voluntary, although they often occur as a result of FDA urging. The agency has to show that a drug
poses an imminent risk to pull it off the market, and that's usually difficult to do. Several proposals would give FDA authority
to levy fines or impose other penalties on marketers that fail to comply quickly to post-approval safety concerns.
Expand information on clinical trials Congress wants to strengthen and expand clinical trial registries to better inform the public about investigative drugs under
study; there also is a push for public disclosure of clinical trial results, including those that end up producing unfavorable