When Arthur Higgins first announced that he was about to take the reins of the healthcare group at Bayer, in 2004, colleagues
were surprised. Here he was, chairman and CEO of Enzon Pharmaceuticals, a small but rapidly growing company, about to move
to a firm battered by dropping stock prices and the wave of lawsuits that followed the withdrawal of its ill-fated statin,
Baycol (cervastatin). And though many people might regard that as a challenge and opportunity, there was also Bayer's reputation
as a classic dyed-in-the-wool German corporation—straitlaced, slow moving, and utterly averse to making decisions. Higgins
recalls, "They said, 'How can you live with the bureaucracy?'"
Quite easily, it turns out. Bayer, since 2001, had been remaking itself, partly with an eye toward making itself quicker and
more responsive to the marketplace. The company moved to a holding-company structure, setting up its operating units as legally
independent entities, and in a startling move for a relatively conservative company, spun off its chemical business—long a
cornerstone of Bayer's identity—as a separate company.
For Higgins, Bayer's reputation for bureaucracy proved either exaggerated or out of date. "My observation is that it's actually
quite easy to get decisions made in Bayer," he says. "In fact, it can be somewhat easier than at an American company. Basically
what I've got to do is win over the CEO and it can get done very quickly in a German company."
DEAL MAKER CEO Higgins welcomes potential partners to his table. "The economics are such that I believe that's still a more
profitable model than trying to do it yourself."
For proof, he points to the changes he has brought about in the pharmaceutical business since his arrival in July 2004:
- Within weeks of Higgins' arrival, Bayer HealthCare announced that it would acquire Roche's consumer products division, making
it one of the top-three companies worldwide in over-the-counter drugs. The deal closed in January 2005
- It divested an underperforming plasma business, but in keeping with a plan to make cardiac care and hematology a key focus,
it retained anti-hemophilic Kogenate, the latest in its long line of products for hemophilia
- It won FDA approval for and launched Nexavar (sorafenib), a first-in-class cancer drug that targets multiple kinases
- In March, it launched a successful takeover bid for Schering AG, consolidating its position as a specialty drug company and
acquiring a high-quality US sales force
- This past June, it announced the planned sale of its diagnostics division to Siemens, freeing up resources to focus on its
diabetes care business, which was formerly linked to diagnostics.
Not bad for a supposedly slow-moving bureaucracy.
"When I think about what we have achieved, it stuns me," says Higgins. "I'm thinking, are we moving that fast? And the answer
is yes, we are moving that fast. We've seen our revenues increase from just a little over 8 billion euros [about $10 billion]
to a little over 13 billion euros [$16 billion] on a pro forma basis, and we've seen the contribution of healthcare to Bayer
grow to more than 50 percent of revenues and income. The Bayer HealthCare stock has doubled in that two-and-a half-year period.
Our momentum and confidence in our company are second to none. When I meet with my fellow CEOs, you know, I get a sense I'm
having fun and they're struggling."
'We don't need this'
In the 1980s, Bayer was a top-five pharma. By the turn of the century, it was decidedly second-tier. The reason was a familiar
"If you think of Bayer in the eighties, the pharmaceutical business was the engine," says Higgins. "Bayer, like a lot of companies,
believed that you could achieve sustainability through internal innovation. So they significantly increased their research
and development and believed that the pipeline was always going to be their savior."