Reformers regard transparency in healthcare costs, provider practices, and drug and medical product performance as critical to informing prescribing decisions, driving down expenditures, and expanding access to affordable care. One problem with the nation's healthcare system is a lack of transparency in financing, pointed out Robert Reischauer, president of the Urban Institute, at a recent health policy meeting. "Few people understand what things cost or who pays the bill."
Proposals to expand adoption of health information technology and fund comparative-effectiveness research could also increase transparency. And objective comparisons of treatment effects would supplement basic safety and efficacy information required by FDA and support appropriate treatment.The 411 on Safety and Pricing
The FDA Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) expanded manufacturer disclosure of clinical research activity, research study results, and drug safety information. FDA is responding by posting lists of drug safety signals and issuing "early" notices on important safety concerns. The agency recently announced that it is assessing reports on bleeding associated with Eli Lilly's sepsis treatment Xigris (drotrecogin) and potentially serious drug interactions involving the blood thinner Plavix (clopidogrel). However, these early communications raise questions about how extensively FDA should assess preliminary reports on safety issues before going public, as sounding false alarms can unnecessarily prompt patients to discontinue treatment.
Public disclosure of drug prices is also being encouraged. Medicare now posts cost and coverage information to help beneficiaries assess options. The scope of this information may expand as patient advocates examine beneficiary copays for pricey biotech therapies and plan policies that require patients to pay the difference between generic and brand-name drugs. Government involvement in negotiating Medicare drug prices may further expose marketers price and discount information to public scrutiny.
Payment Data and Public Domain
Requiring disclosure of company payments and gifts to healthcare professionals is another state strategy for assessing influences driving prescriber behavior. Minnesota, Vermont, West Virginia, Maine, and Massachusetts have all enacted reporting requirements, while California, Texas, Illinois, and New York, among others, are considering similar mandates. These statutes seek data on fees, gifts, and educational grants to healthcare providers and organizations, but policies vary considerably as to which expenditures have to be disclosed, and when.
Federal and state enforcement officials are also expanding drug company disclosures by including reporting requirements in corporate integrity agreements (CIAs) negotiated to settle allegations of fraudulent promotional and pricing practices. Prosecutors have put an emphasis on transparency in industry relationships with physicians and in results from clinical trials, said US Attorney Michael Loucks at CBI's Pharmaceutical Compliance Congress in January. Under a comprehensive CIA negotiated as part of Eli Lilly's record $1.4 billion Zyprexa settlement, Lilly will report payments to physicians, including speaker and consulting fees, grants, gifts, food, and travel. Last year, Cephalon similarly agreed to report payments to physicians as part of its $375 million settlement involving marketing practices for three medications. And Bristol-Myers Squibb's 2007 CIA requires reporting of listed prices to state Medicaid programs.
A related trend involves broader disclosure of financial interests of investigators involved in clinical research. Here, the aim is to minimize the role of money in shaping drug development and utilization, and to ensure that potential financial rewards do not bias research results or medical opinions. FDA and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have broadened financial disclosure requirements for clinical investigators, but there has been pressure to stiffen reporting policies and to enforce the rules more vigorously.
To boost financial reports from researchers involved in FDA-regulated trials, the HHS Office of the Inspector General (OIG) issued a report in January recommending that trial sponsors disclose investigator financial information to FDA before studies begin, instead of when the company files a new-drug application. Sen. Charles Grassley (R-IA) is also seeking expanded financial disclosure of industry payments to scientists receiving NIH grants. Grassley has uncovered prominent academics who failed to report millions in industry payments, particularly several leading psychiatrists involved in testing and promoting widely used antidepressants.